Large, 5 – 30 ft. tall, deciduous shrub or small tree common throughout most of US from 1,000 – 9,000 ft. elevation. Adapted to all soil textures except dense clay. Grows in moist, fertile sites like canyon bottoms, ditch and stream banks, roadsides and on cool moist foothill and mountain habitats. Tolerant to moderate acid, alkali, and weak saline soils. Cold-tolerant. Rhizomatous, often forming loose thickets. Not tolerant to poor drainage or high water tables. Fair palatability to livestock and good palatability to browsing wildlife. Berries are excellent food for birds and small mammals. Useful for revegetation of disturbed soils of mining, road construction etc. Also used for wildlife habitat improvement, windbreaks and native landscaping. Minimum precip. is 12 – 15 inches. Plant in fall ½ – 1 inch deep. 4,800 seeds/lb.
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